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GIVE - Guidance for Individual Vocations in Europe



The Erasmus+ funded project "GIVE – Guidance for Individual Vocations in Europe” (2019-2021) aims at fostering an innovative and inclusive offer of educational and vocational guidance by:

  • Raising awareness about the rise of new forms of labor in digitalised labor markets, the resulting transformation of the concept of vocation and the impact of these developments on guidance.
  • Providing tools and strategies for addressing this challenge at the levels of governance, offer and practice with a special focus on new disadvantaged groups.


Boundaryless careers (working simultaneously for multiple employers in multiple projects in a short sequence) in new forms of labor (platform workers, own-account workers, portfolio work, etc.) boost an ongoing trend towards (enforced) self-reliance and self-optimisation of modern employees.

Persons performing these new forms of labor are coined “ENTREPLOYEES” (Pongraz 2003). Today entrepreneurial labor is most easily to depict in forms of labor such as crowd workers and on-demand workers of the platform economy as well as solo self-employed, but also takes shape within conventional employment by focusing on self-governance (e. g. management by objectives) and removing all traditional boundaries with regard to time, space, content and qualification. These new forms of labor involve opportunities such as career entry points and flexible working conditions, but also challenges of self-control and self-marketing.

Reduced regulations and job security makes new forms of labor risky for persons with few resources and low qualification leading to the establishment of a disadvantaged sub-group of entreployees, the “SELF-ENTREPRENEURIAL DAY LABORERS” (Voß 2003), a new group of working poor.

The spread of entreployees entails a transformation of the concept of vocation. While the Fordist model of employee is built on a concept of vocation, characterised by rigidly standardised qualifications and basic work virtues, the post-Fordist entreployee has his very own “INDIVIDUAL VOCATION” (Voß 2003): “a personalized model of specific competence and experience, integrated in a rationalized, though individual, way of life.” This new type of labor is not replacing the Fordist model of employee altogether. In many fields of work the typical occupational employee still dominates. But especially in sectors representing modern capitalism such as IT, media, culture, consulting, research and training as well as in the service economy entreployees are to be found in large numbers, heralding a changing relationship between providers and users of human labor characterised by an increase of casualization and, of course, also influencing the situation of employees in normal employment (comp. Crouch 2019).


The expansion of new forms of labor and modified vocational identities are a challenge for guidance. It is not enough anymore to support clients in choosing and starting their career and in switching jobs. Guidance has to empower a new, very diverse client group to perform their individual vocations by addressing issues such as:

  • Self-rationalisation - support long-term planning of individual vocations from a holistic perspective
  • Individualisation - raising awareness for the need of individualised qualifications, which can easily be adapted along changing demands
  • Self-commercialisation – support identifying individual competences, managing social spaces and boosting the personal online reputation for a labour market where platforms of digital matchmakers serve as new drivers of career development
  • Self-organisation – teaching career management skills
  • And not least, support them in critically reflecting their role in the world of work; in improving their labor market position as entreployee; and/or in moving on to a more stable and secure form of work


Adressing these challenges, guidance practitioners and policy makers need to

  • have a firm understanding of the ongoing transformation of labor (of changing relationships between providers and users of labor, new forms of casualization, new drivers of careers, skills needs etc.) and the resulting challenges for guidance
  • know how to access these new client groups (focusing on virtual approaches)
  • have appropriate counselling tools at hand (network model of guidance, virtual peer counselling etc.)
  • adapt their policies to this challenge at structural and strategical level

Supporting guidance practitioners and policy makers in meeting these needs, we will provide them with the following PROJECT OUTPUTS:

  • A typology of entreployees and their specific guidance needs to address the diversity of the new client groups.
  • A textbook and an e-training tool on catering entreployees with appropriate guidance offers.
  • A policy paper recommending tasks for governing actors in providing guidance for entreployees.


  • Entreployees and especially the disadvantaged sub group of entreployees, “self-entrepreneurial day laborers”, will benefit from guidance offers focusing on their special needs.
  • Direct target groups are guidance practitioners and policy makers, who will be supported to adapt their policy, offer and practice to the new client group: entreployees performing new forms of labor.


The project consortium consists of institutions with expertise in the field of educational guidance, labour (market) and education policy, policy analysis, consulting, scientific research and developing (web based) learning solution: ÖSB Studien und Beratung gGmbH (AT) as lead, bbb Büro für berufliche Bildungsplanung (DE), i-smARt Trust reg. (LIE), Vyzkumny ustav prace a socialnich veci (CZ).


The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

i-smARt ist als Unternehmen international tätig im Bereich Bildungsforschung und Bildungsentwicklung mit dem Schwerpunkt auf medienbasiertes Lernen.

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